Microcontroller-based ion meter application utilizing real-time data acquisition system

M. Krajnc*, A. Kovač, A. Zupančič, A. Šuštar

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia


In this work, detection of lead (II) ions with automatic recording and data logging system for ions based on electrochemical analysis using an ion-selective electrode and wireless communication technology in surface water are presented. The new system automatically reports lead (II) ions value, time and date in real-time. Results displays in the cellphone of a pre-determined user to a computer system for data banking and further analysis. The system consists of two main parts, a remote monitoring station, and a receiver. The monitoring station acquires the required data, and send the data to the pre-determined cellphone user or computer system in the form of short message services (SMS) using the Global Systems for Mobile communications (GSM technology). It then transmits the data using the GSM network through local telecommunications and infrastructure. The system can work correctly no matter the distance from remote stations and to the receiver. The function of the receiver (cellphone or computer) is to receive, display and databank the information. The information downloaded to the computer systems for data banking and further analysis. The comparison of the results between the results of the new system and the commercial ion water resulted in an R-squared of 0.99. The testing results obtained were compared with the corresponding reference analysis. The combination of these new technologies makes this approach more affordable and can be implemented by any persons even with little technical.


Microcontroller, Arduino, Lead ion

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Article history

Received 12 December 2018, Received in revised form 28 January 2019, Accepted 12 February 2019

Full text

DownloadAvailable in PDF
Portable Document Format

How to cite

Krajnc M, Kovač A, Zupančič A et al. (2019). Microcontroller-based ion meter application utilizing real-time data acquisition system. Annals of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2(3): 8-12

References (19)

  1. Adamo F, Attivissimo F, Carducci CGC, and Lanzolla AML (2015). A smart sensor network for sea water quality monitoring. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(5): 2514-2522. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2014.2360816   [Google Scholar]
  2. Bansod B, Kumar T, Thakur R, Rana S, and Singh I (2017). A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 94: 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2017.03.031   [Google Scholar]
  3. Bruins AP (2015). An overview of electrochemistry combined with mass spectrometry. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 70: 14-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2015.02.016   [Google Scholar]
  4. Campos I, Alcaniz M, Aguado D, Barat R, Ferrer J, Gil L, and Vivancos JL (2012). A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants. Water Research, 46(8): 2605-2614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.02.029   [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen SH, Li YX, Li PH, Xiao XY, Jiang M, Li SS and Liu WQ (2018). Electrochemical spectral methods for trace detection of heavy metals: A review. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 106: 139-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2018.07.005   [Google Scholar]
  6. Christidis K, Robertson P, Gow K, and Pollard P (2006). On‐site monitoring and cartographical mapping of heavy metals. Instrumentation Science and Technology, 34(5): 489-499. https://doi.org/10.1080/10739140600805916   [Google Scholar]
  7. Dimeski G, Badrick T, and St John A (2010). Ion selective electrodes (ISEs) and interferences—A review. Clinica Chimica Acta, 411(5-6): 309-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2009.12.005   [Google Scholar]
  8. Kumar P, Kim KH, Bansal V, Lazarides T, and Kumar N (2017). Progress in the sensing techniques for heavy metal ions using nanomaterials. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 54: 30-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2017.06.010   [Google Scholar]
  9. Li Y, Chen Y, Yu H, Tian L, and Wang Z (2018). Portable and smart devices for monitoring heavy metal ions integrated with nanomaterials. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 98: 190-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2017.11.011   [Google Scholar]
  10. Lillehoj PB, Huang MC, Truong N, and Ho CM (2013). Rapid electrochemical detection on a mobile phone. Lab on a Chip, 13(15): 2950-2955. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc50306b   [Google Scholar]
  11. Lin Y, Gritsenko D, Feng S, Teh YC, Lu X, and Xu J (2016). Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 83: 256-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.04.061   [Google Scholar]
  12. Lv ZL, Qi GM, Jiang TJ, Guo Z, Yu DY, Liu JH, and Huang XJ (2017). A simplified electrochemical instrument equipped with automated flow-injection system and network communication technology for remote online monitoring of heavy metal ions. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 791: 49-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.03.012   [Google Scholar]
  13. Nantaphol S, Kava AA, Channon RB, Kondo T, Siangproh W, Chailapakul O, and Henry CS (2019). Janus electrochemistry: Simultaneous electrochemical detection at multiple working conditions in a paper-based analytical device. Analytica Chimica Acta, 1056: 88–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2019.01.026   [Google Scholar]
  14. Pungor E, Tóth K, and Nagy G (1978). Ion-selective electrodes. 3rd Edition, Mikrochimica Acta, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01201607   [Google Scholar]
  15. Rasin, Z and Abdullah MR (2009). Water quality monitoring system using zigbee based wireless sensor network. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 9(10): 24-28.  [Google Scholar]
  16. Rowe AA, Bonham AJ, White RJ, Zimmer MP, Yadgar RJ, Hobza TM, and Plaxco KW (2011). CheapStat: An open-source, “Do-It-Yourself” potentiostat for analytical and educational applications. PloS One, 6(9): e23783. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023783   [Google Scholar]
  17. Sibal LN and Espino MPB (2018). Heavy metals in lake water: A review on occurrence and analytical determination. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 98(6): 536-554. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2018.1481212   [Google Scholar]
  18. Szunerits S and Boukherroub R (2018). Graphene-based nanomaterials in innovative electrochemistry. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 10: 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2018.03.016   [Google Scholar]
  19. Yantasee W, Lin Y, Hongsirikarn K, Fryxell GE, Addleman R, and Timchalk C (2007). Electrochemical sensors for the detection of lead and other toxic heavy metals: The next generation of personal exposure biomonitors. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(12): 1683-1690. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10190   [Google Scholar]